Circuit physiological properties

This sub-section examines the circuit-level physiology of the reconstructed microcircuit against relevant literature.

Several experimental protocols were replicated in silico to benchmark the network physiology of the reconstructed microcircuit. Properties that were evaluated include the frequency of network oscillations, laminar activity propagation, thalamocortical innervation, and excitation-inhibition balance.

The results of the consistency check were categorized as consistent, inconsistent, possibly consistent, not implemented or not applicable based on agreement with a given evaluation criterion.

paper(s)
paper(s)
paper(s)
paper(s)
paper(s)

consistent - Randy M. Bruno and Bert Sakmann - Cortex is driven by weak but synchronously active thalamocortical synapses ext_link

input/validation/consistent
consistent
evaluation criterion
anatomy and physiology of thalamocortical innervation
id
1
species
rat
age
brain region
somatosensory cortex
layer
4
cell
aspect
thalamocortical pathway
key result(s)
thalamocortical synapses have low efficacy but are numerous and synchronous
pmid
16778049
title
Cortex is driven by weak but synchronously active thalamocortical synapses
contact Name
Randy M. Bruno and Bert Sakmann
contributed by
Yihwa Kim
checked by
SR

consistent - Dirk Feldmeyer - Excitatory signal flow and connectivity in a cortical column: focus on barrel cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
consistent
evaluation criterion
patterns of laminar excitation flow
id
2
species
rat
age
review
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
All
cell
PC
aspect
excitatory signal flow
key result(s)
Excitatory signal flow and connectivity in a cortical column: focus on barrel cortex
pmid
17717695
title
Excitatory signal flow and connectivity in a cortical column: focus on barrel cortex.
contact Name
Dirk Feldmeyer
contributed by
MPG
checked by
SR

consistent - Michael S. Jones, Kurt D. MacDonald, Byung Ju Choi, F. Edward Dudek, and Daniel S. Barth - Intracellular correlates of fast (>200 Hz) electrical oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
consistent
evaluation criterion
fast oscillations and evoked potentials
id
3
species
rats (male)
age
250-350 (~p59-77)
brain region
somatosensory cortex
layer
cortex
cell
aspect
Intracellular Correlates of Fast (>200 Hz) Electrical Oscillations
key result(s)
fast oscillations define preferred latencies for action potential generation in cortical Regular Spiking cells. Very Fast Oscilations are generated by inhibitory interneurons
pmid
10980023
title
Intracellular correlates of fast (>200 Hz) electrical oscillations in rat somatosensory cortex.
contact Name
Michael S. Jones, Kurt D. MacDonald, Byung Ju Choi, F. Edward Dudek, and Daniel S. Barth
contributed by
Dimitri Christodoulou
checked by
SR

consistent - Connors, BW - Synaptic basis for intense thalamocortical activation of feedforward inhibitory cells in neocortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
consistent
evaluation criterion
physiology of thalamocortical innervation
id
4
species
mouse
age
p13-p18
brain region
S1
layer
4
cell
IN
aspect
Thalamocortical responses
key result(s)
Circuit dynamics allowed feedforward inhibition to suppress responses in excitatory cells more effectively than in interneurons. Thalamocortical excitatory currents rose quickly in interneurons, allowing them to fire action potentials before significant feedforward inhibition emerged.
pmid
17334362
title
Synaptic basis for intense thalamocortical activation of feedforward inhibitory cells in neocortex.
contact Name
Connors, BW
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

consistent - Luhmann, HJ - Thalamic Network Oscillations Synchronize Ontogenetic Columns in the Newborn Rat Barrel Cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
consistent
evaluation criterion
Contribution of thalamic afferents to gamma oscilattions
id
5
species
rat
age
p0-p7
brain region
S1
layer
cell
Int & PC
aspect
network oscillations
key result(s)
Gamma bursts synchronized a cortical network of 300-400 µm in diameter and were coherent with gamma activity recorded simultaneously in the thalamic ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus
pmid
22593243
title
Thalamic Network Oscillations Synchronize Ontogenetic Columns in the Newborn Rat Barrel Cortex.
contact Name
Luhmann, HJ
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not applicable - Callaway, E - Functional specialization of seven mouse visual cortical areas. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not applicable
evaluation criterion
not applicable - orientation selectivity study
id
6
species
mouse
age
adult
brain region
V1
layer
L2/3
cell
IN, PC
aspect
connectivity in V1
key result(s)
Mouse higher visual areas are functionally distinct, and separate groups of areas may be specialized for motion-related versus pattern-related computations, perhaps forming pathways analogous to dorsal and ventral streams in other species.
pmid
22196338
title
Functional specialization of seven mouse visual cortical areas.
contact Name
Callaway, E
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not applicable - Marcel Oberlaender - Simulation of signal flow in 3D reconstructions of an anatomically realistic neural network in rat vibrissal cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not applicable
evaluation criterion
Simulation study by the Sakmann group
id
7
species
rat
age
-
brain region
Vibrissal cortex
layer
cell
all
aspect
Signal flow in 3D realistic neural network
key result(s)
Our simulations provide insights of how anatomical parameters, such as the subcellular organization of synapses, may constrain spiking responses at the cellular and network levels
pmid
21775101
title
Simulation of signal flow in 3D reconstructions of an anatomically realistic neural network in rat vibrissal cortex.
contact Name
Marcel Oberlaender
contributed by
Rajnish
checked by
SR

not applicable - Roger D Traub - Single-column thalamocortical network model exhibiting gamma oscillations, sleep spindles, and epileptogenic bursts. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not applicable
evaluation criterion
Theoretical study by Roger Traub
id
8
species
Rat
age
adult
brain region
primary and secondary auditory regions
layer
all layers
cell
all layer
aspect
largest simulated cortical column
key result(s)
Electrical coupling between axons appears necessary for persistent gamma and additionally plays a role in the detailed shaping of epileptogenic events
pmid
15525801
title
Single-column thalamocortical network model exhibiting gamma oscillations, sleep spindles, and epileptogenic bursts.
contact Name
Roger D Traub
contributed by
Rajnish
checked by
SR

not implemented - Connors, BW - A network of electrically coupled interneurons drives synchronized inhibition in neocortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Gap junctions and cholinergic modulation are currently not implemented
id
9
species
rat
age
p14-p21
brain region
S1
layer
4
cell
RS, FS, LTS
aspect
Thalamocortical responses
key result(s)
Synchronized LTS activity required electrical synapses, but not fast chemical synapses. Tetanic stimulation of local circuitry induced effects similar to those of metabotropic agonists. We conclude that an electrically coupled network of LTS interneurons can mediate synchronized inhibition when activated by modulatory neurotransmitters.
pmid
10966621
title
A network of electrically coupled interneurons drives synchronized inhibition in neocortex.
contact Name
Connors, BW
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not implemented - Korngreeen, B - Cellular and network contributions to excitability of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons in the rat. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
A model of the extracellular space to study the effect of bath manipulations is yet to be implemented in the reconstructed microcircuit
id
10
species
rat
age
p13-p15
brain region
S1
layer
5
cell
TTL5
aspect
Excitability
key result(s)
Both cellular and network changes may contribute to the observed effects of slice excitation solutions on the physiology of single neurons.The data suggests that the difference in the ionic composition of current standard ACSF from that of CSF measured in vivo cause ACSF to depress network activity in acute brain slices
pmid
18030343
title
Cellular and network contributions to excitability of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons in the rat.
contact Name
Korngreeen, B
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not implemented - Stuart, GJ - Cholinergic inhibition of neocortical pyramidal neurons. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Cholinergic innervation is currently not implemented
id
11
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
S1
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
Neuromodulation
key result(s)
Transient activation of M1-type muscarinic receptors induces calcium release from IP3-sensitive intracellular calcium stores and subsequent activation of an apamin-sensitive, SK-type calcium-activated potassium conductance
pmid
16267239
title
Cholinergic inhibition of neocortical pyramidal neurons.
contact Name
Stuart, GJ
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not implemented - Stuart, GJ - Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Cholinergic innervation is currently not implemented
id
12
species
rat
age
p15-p17
brain region
pfC, S1, V1
layer
2/3,5
cell
PC
aspect
Neuromodulation
key result(s)
Focal ACh application (100 µM) inhibited layer 5 pyramidal neurons in all cortical areas via activation of an apamin-sensitive SK-type calcium-activated potassium conductance. Cholinergic inhibition was most robust in prefrontal layer 5 neurons.
pmid
17122323
title
Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons.
contact Name
Stuart, GJ
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not implemented - Gordon M. G. Shepherd - Hierarchical connectivity and connection-specific dynamics in the corticospinal-corticostriatal microcircuit in mouse motor cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Corticostriatal projection are currently not implemented
id
13
species
mouse
age
P22-P28
brain region
Motor cortex, M1
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
Connectivity between layer 5 PCs
key result(s)
Both corticospinal and callosally projecting corticostriatal neurons in layer 5B formed within-class (recurrent) connections, with higher connection probability among corticostriatal than among corticospinal neurons. In contrast, across-class connectivity was extraordinarily asymmetric, essentially unidirectional from corticostriatal to corticospinal. Corticostriatal neurons in layer 5A and corticocortical neurons (callosal projection neurons similar to corticostriatal neurons) similarly received a paucity of corticospinal input. Connections involving presynaptic corti- costriatal neurons had greater synaptic depression, and those involving postsynaptic corticospinal neurons had faster decaying EPSPs.
pmid
22492054
title
Hierarchical connectivity and connection-specific dynamics in the corticospinal-corticostriatal microcircuit in mouse motor cortex.
contact Name
Gordon M. G. Shepherd
contributed by
J. Ryge
checked by
SR

not implemented - Solange P. Brown1 & Shaul Hestrin1 - Intracortical circuits of pyramidal neurons reflect their long-range axonal targets ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Longe range axons are currently not included in the model
id
14
species
mouse
age
p14-p17
brain region
layer
5
cell
pc
aspect
connectivity between L5 pyramidal neurons
key result(s)
the probability of feed-forward connections from corticocortical neurons to corticotectal neurons is approximately three- to four- fold higher than the probability of monosynaptic connections among corticocortical or corticotectal cells.
pmid
19151698
title
Intracortical circuits of pyramidal neurons reflect their long-range axonal targets
contact Name
Solange P. Brown1 & Shaul Hestrin1
contributed by
Yihwa Kim
checked by
SR

not implemented - Masayuki Kobayashi - Postsynaptic Cell Type-Dependent Cholinergic Regulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Rat Insular Cortex ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Cholinergic innervation is currently not implemented
id
15
species
rat
age
p16-44
brain region
Rat Insular Cortex
layer
5
cell
GABAergic interneurons and pyramidal cells
aspect
modulation patterns in response to neurotransmitters
key result(s)
presynaptic interneurons identify their targeted postsynaptic neurons and express presynaptic molecules specific to postsynaptic cell subtypes.
pmid
20685921
title
Postsynaptic Cell Type-Dependent Cholinergic Regulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Rat Insular Cortex
contact Name
Masayuki Kobayashi
contributed by
John Fielden
checked by
SR

not implemented - Neil R. Hardingham - Presynaptic efficacy directs normalization of synaptic strength in layer 2/3 rat neocortex after paired activity. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
STDP is currently not implemented
id
16
species
rat
age
young adult
brain region
layer
2,3
cell
PC
aspect
synaptic plasticity
key result(s)
paired activity produces equal proportions of cells showing LTP and LTD. connections that exhibit LTP are of smaller mean amplitude than connections that show LTD. plasticity is mostly presynaptic and those connections that potentiate are weaker presynaptically than those that depress. Pairing thus acts to normalize the synapses' presynaptic strength
pmid
17267749
title
Presynaptic efficacy directs normalization of synaptic strength in layer 2/3 rat neocortex after paired activity.
contact Name
Neil R. Hardingham
contributed by
Kay
checked by
SR

not implemented - Gulledge, A - Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
Cholinergic innervation is currently not implemented
id
17
species
mouse
age
adult
brain region
pfC
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
Neuromodulation
key result(s)
The serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) was tested in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and three distinct response types were found: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A) receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs), 5-HT2A (2A) receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%), and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%)
pmid
22454619
title
Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons.
contact Name
Gulledge, A
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

not implemented - Daniel E Shulz - Spike timing-dependent synaptic depression in the in vivo barrel cortex of the rat. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
not implemented
evaluation criterion
STDP is currently not implemented
id
18
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
somatosensory
layer
L2/3 L5
cell
pc
aspect
in vivo stdp
key result(s)
These results demonstrate that spike timing-dependent synaptic depression occurs in S1 in vivo, and is therefore a plausible plasticity mechanism in the sensory cortex
pmid
17287502
title
Spike timing-dependent synaptic depression in the in vivo barrel cortex of the rat.
contact Name
Daniel E Shulz
contributed by
J-P
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Connors, BW - Abrupt maturation of a spike-synchronizing mechanism in neocortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - spike synchrony of low threshold spiking neurons
id
19
species
rat
age
p14-p17
brain region
S1
layer
L4
cell
pc
aspect
spike synchrony
key result(s)
The developmental transformation of LTS interneurons into a synchronous, oscillatory network overlaps with the onset of active somatosensory exploration, suggesting a potential role for this synchronizing system in sensory processing.
pmid
16093380
title
Abrupt maturation of a spike-synchronizing mechanism in neocortex.
contact Name
Connors, BW
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Alison L. Barth - An embedded subnetwork of highly active neurons in the neocortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
20
species
mouse
age
P13-15
brain region
Primary somatosensory cortex
layer
2/3
cell
PC
aspect
functional connectivity
key result(s)
Functionally related PC have higher connectivity probabalility: Recently active cells (fosGFP+) neurons have a greater likelihood of being connected to each other. Recentluy active layer 2/3 PC cells also increase firing rate compared to non-active cells.
pmid
21172607
title
An embedded subnetwork of highly active neurons in the neocortex.
contact Name
Alison L. Barth
contributed by
J. Ryge
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Luhmann, HJ - Carbachol-induced network oscillations in the intact cerebral cortex of the newborn rat. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
21
species
rat
age
p0-p7
brain region
S1
layer
cell
Int & PC
aspect
network oscillations
key result(s)
Whole-cell recordings from morphologically identified pyramidal neurons in the intact cortex revealed a close temporal correlation between CCh-induced membrane oscillations and local field potential recordings
pmid
12631570
title
Carbachol-induced network oscillations in the intact cerebral cortex of the newborn rat.
contact Name
Luhmann, HJ
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Medini, P. - Cell-type-specific sub- and suprathreshold receptive fields of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids in rat primary visual cortex ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - spont AP firing rates
id
22
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
primary visual cortex
layer
2,3
cell
pc
aspect
Connectivity of cortical pyramidal neurons
key result(s)
L4Ps may receive mostly thalamic inputs, whereas L2/3Ps may receive both thalamic and cortical inputs from layer 4
pmid
21704132
title
Cell-type-specific sub- and suprathreshold receptive fields of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids in rat primary visual cortex
contact Name
Medini, P.
contributed by
John Fielden
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Korngreen, G - Cellular and network contributions to excitability of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons in the rat. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
23
species
rat
age
p13-p15
brain region
S1
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
Network excitability
key result(s)
Modulation of slice excitation level by modifying the ionic composition of the bath solution modifies both cellular and network excitability of L5 pyramidal neurons
pmid
18030343
title
Cellular and network contributions to excitability of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons in the rat.
contact Name
Korngreen, G
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - J. Julius Zhu - Chandelier cells control excessive cortical excitation: characteristics of whisker-evoked synaptic responses of layer 2/3 nonpyramidal and pyramidal neurons. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
24
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
somatosensory cortex
layer
2,3
cell
IN
aspect
connectivity of interneurons
key result(s)
Chandelier cells instead of processing sensory information, might prevent excessive excitatory activity in cortex
pmid
15175379
title
Chandelier cells control excessive cortical excitation: characteristics of whisker-evoked synaptic responses of layer 2/3 nonpyramidal and pyramidal neurons.
contact Name
J. Julius Zhu
contributed by
Yihwa Kim
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Pinto, D - Circuit dynamics and coding strategies in rodent somatosensory cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
25
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
S1
layer
4
cell
PCs
aspect
Thalamocortical responses
key result(s)
The mechanism by which the cortex processes an afferent signal is inextricably linked with, and in fact determines, the saliency of neural codes embedded in the thalamic response
pmid
10712446
title
Circuit dynamics and coding strategies in rodent somatosensory cortex.
contact Name
Pinto, D
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Diego Contreras - Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
26
species
rat
age
p14 - p23
brain region
S1
layer
2/3, 4 and 5
cell
all
aspect
up states and horizontal propagation of columnar activity
key result(s)
L5 amplifies activity in local L2/3 networks and distributes it over many columns within primary sensory cortex.
pmid
22514308
title
Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex.
contact Name
Diego Contreras
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Pinto, D - Cortical damping: analysis of thalamocortical response transformations in rodent barrel cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
27
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
S1
layer
4
cell
PCs
aspect
Thalamocortical responses
key result(s)
Strong inhibition renders the net effect of intracortical connections suppressive or damping, distinguishing it from previous amplifying models of cortical microcircuits
pmid
12466213
title
Cortical damping: analysis of thalamocortical response transformations in rodent barrel cortex.
contact Name
Pinto, D
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Stefano Panzeri - Decoding neuronal population activity in rat somatosensory cortex: role of columnar organization. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
28
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
all
cell
EC
aspect
in vivo stimulus decoding by column
key result(s)
these findings suggest that columnar organization of barrel cortex serves to facilitate decoding of the location of the stimulated whisker
pmid
12466214
title
Decoding neuronal population activity in rat somatosensory cortex: role of columnar organization.
contact Name
Stefano Panzeri
contributed by
MPG
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Ikezoe, K. - Decorrelation of sensory-evoked neuronal responses in rat barrel cortex during postnatal development ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
29
species
rat
age
p5-30
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
2,3
cell
PMBSF neurons
aspect
ability to detect and discriminate sensory stimuli
key result(s)
reduced noise correlation across a population of neurons sharpens the temporal characteristics of single neuron responses and may help improve behavioral performance.
pmid
22677628
title
Decorrelation of sensory-evoked neuronal responses in rat barrel cortex during postnatal development
contact Name
Ikezoe, K.
contributed by
John Fielden
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Alex Kwan - Dissection of cortical microcircuits by single-neuron stimulation in vivo. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - spike transmission during single neuron stimulation
id
30
species
mouse
age
adult
brain region
visual cortex
layer
cell
PC, PV, SOM
aspect
impact of single cell activity in vivo
key result(s)
results demonstrate the feasibility of mapping functional connectivity at cellular resolution in vivo and reveal distinct operations of two major inhibitory circuits, one detecting single-neuron spike bursts and the other reflecting distributed network activity
pmid
22748320
title
Dissection of cortical microcircuits by single-neuron stimulation in vivo.
contact Name
Alex Kwan
contributed by
Rodrigo Perin
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Thomas Klausberger, - Distinct firing patterns of identified basket and dendrite-targeting interneurons in the prefrontal cortex during hippocampal theta and local spindle oscillations. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
31
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
Prefrontal Cortex
layer
2
cell
interneurons
aspect
interneuron activity
key result(s)
recording of interneurons during network oscillations. Distinct classes of GABAergic interneuron in the prefrontal cortex contribute differentially to the synchronization of pyramidal cells during network oscillations
pmid
19641119
title
Distinct firing patterns of identified basket and dendrite-targeting interneurons in the prefrontal cortex during hippocampal theta and local spindle oscillations.
contact Name
Thomas Klausberger,
contributed by
Rodrigo Perin
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Paullus, J.R. - Diverse excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity outcomes in complex horizontal circuits near a functional border of adult neocortex ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - E/I balance
id
32
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
somatosensory cortex
layer
4
cell
aspect
synaptic plasticity
key result(s)
coordinated excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of horizontal connections are capable of contributing to functional reorganization
pmid
21890112
title
Diverse excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity outcomes in complex horizontal circuits near a functional border of adult neocortex
contact Name
Paullus, J.R.
contributed by
John Fielden
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Yuri Zilberter - Energy substrate availability as a determinant of neuronal resting potential, GABA signaling and spontaneous network activity in the neonatal cortex in vitro. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
33
species
Mouse
age
P2-P8
brain region
cortex
layer
cell
PC
aspect
electrical properties, synaptic transmission and metabolism
key result(s)
In slices, availability of energy substrates determines whether GABA signaling displays an inhibitory or excitatory mode and affect membrane reversal potantial (Em). Energy deficits induce unfavorable changes in Em and EGABA, leading to neuronal hyperactivity that may initiate a cascade of patho- logical events
pmid
19943846
title
Energy substrate availability as a determinant of neuronal resting potential, GABA signaling and spontaneous network activity in the neonatal cortex in vitro.
contact Name
Yuri Zilberter
contributed by
J. Ryge
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Scanziani, M - Gain control by layer six in cortical circuits of vision. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
34
species
mouse
age
adult
brain region
V1
layer
6
cell
PC
aspect
gain modulation
key result(s)
This study establishes layer six as a major mediator of cortical gain modulation and suggests that it could be a node through which convergent inputs from several brain areas can regulate the earliest steps of cortical visual processing
pmid
22367547
title
Gain control by layer six in cortical circuits of vision.
contact Name
Scanziani, M
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Gordon M G Shepherd1,2,4, Armen Stepanyants2-4, Ingrid Bureau1,2, Dmitri Chklovskii2 & Karel Svoboda1,2 - Geometric and functional organization of cortical circuits. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
35
species
rat
age
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
cell
PC
aspect
structural and functional connectivity
key result(s)
Within most individual projections, functional inputs were predicted by geometry and a single scale factor, the synaptic strength per potential synapse. This factor, however, varied between projections and, in one case, even within a projection, up to 20-fold. Relationships between geometric overlap and synaptic strength thus depend on the laminar and columnar locations of both the pre- and postsynaptic neurons, even for neurons of the same type.
pmid
15880111
title
Geometric and functional organization of cortical circuits.
contact Name
Gordon M G Shepherd1,2,4, Armen Stepanyants2-4, Ingrid Bureau1,2, Dmitri Chklovskii2 & Karel Svoboda1,2
contributed by
Yihwa Kim
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Keneth D Harris - Laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in auditory cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - propagation speeds of upstates and evoked responses
id
36
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
Auditory cortex
layer
2 to 6
cell
pc
aspect
Laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in auditory cortex
key result(s)
The similarity of sparseness patterns for both neural events and distinct spread of activity may reflect similarity of local processing and differences in the flow of information through cortical circuits, respectively.
pmid
19914188
title
Laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in auditory cortex.
contact Name
Keneth D Harris
contributed by
J-P
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - C. P. J. de Kock - Layer- and cell-type-specific suprathreshold stimulus representation in rat primary somatosensory cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
37
species
rat
age
p25 - p30
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
L2/3,4,5 & 6
cell
EC
aspect
Functional in vivo recordings on responding EC
key result(s)
Layer- and cell-type-specific in vivo suprathreshold stimulus representation in rat primary somatosensory cortex
pmid
17317752
title
Layer- and cell-type-specific suprathreshold stimulus representation in rat primary somatosensory cortex.
contact Name
C. P. J. de Kock
contributed by
MPG
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Karim G. Oweiss - Millisecond-timescale local network coding in the rat primary somatosensory cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
38
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
left somatosensory (barrel) cortex
layer
L5
cell
aspect
The role of temporal precision in the correlation between neocortical neurons has been hypothesized to enhance information flow along sensory pathways. We examined spike timing correlation between simultaneously recorded layer V neurons within andacross columns of the primary somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats during unilateral whisker stimulation
key result(s)
Network similarity of 83.3±6% within whisker, compared to only 50.3±18% across whiskers. These networks further provided information about whisker identity that was approximately 6 times higher than what was provided by the latency to first spike and 13 times higher than what was provided by the spike count of individual neurons examined separately --> the presence of a temporally precise network coding mechanism that integrates information across neighboring columns
pmid
21738751
title
Millisecond-timescale local network coding in the rat primary somatosensory cortex.
contact Name
Karim G. Oweiss
contributed by
Oli
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Mansvelder, H - Prelimbic and infralimbic prefrontal cortex interact during fast network oscillations ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
39
species
rat
age
p14-p28
brain region
pFC
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
fast oscillations
key result(s)
Fast network oscillations in rat infralimbic cortex slices occur at higher frequencies and with higher power than oscillations in prelimbic cortex
pmid
18628964
title
Prelimbic and infralimbic prefrontal cortex interact during fast network oscillations
contact Name
Mansvelder, H
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Sakmann B - Reconstruction of an average cortical column in silico. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - cell type specific AP output (L23PC, L5STPC, L5TTPC)
id
40
species
rat
age
-
brain region
barrel cortex
layer
1 to 6
cell
neurons
aspect
Anatomical and functional connectivity and cortical column in silico
key result(s)
Synthesis of an average functional column
pmid
17822776
title
Reconstruction of an average cortical column in silico.
contact Name
Sakmann B
contributed by
Rajnish
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Khazipov, R - Retinal waves trigger spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
41
species
rat
age
p5-p6
brain region
V1
layer
5
cell
PC
aspect
netwrok spindle bursts
key result(s)
Spontaneous retinal waves are transmitted to the visual cortex and trigger endogenous spindle bursts
pmid
16793880
title
Retinal waves trigger spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex.
contact Name
Khazipov, R
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Jason Kerr - Spatial organization of neuronal population responses in layer 2/3 of rat barrel cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
42
species
rat
age
p25-35
brain region
S1
layer
2,3
cell
all
aspect
in vivo responses
key result(s)
Neuronal Responses to sensory (thalamic) input
pmid
18045926
title
Spatial organization of neuronal population responses in layer 2/3 of rat barrel cortex.
contact Name
Jason Kerr
contributed by
Rodrigo Perin
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Contreras, D - Stimulus-dependent changes in spike threshold enhance feature selectivity in rat barrel cortex neurons. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
43
species
rat
age
adult
brain region
S1
layer
2 to 6
cell
PCs
aspect
Spike Threshold
key result(s)
The spike output and the underlying synaptic response decreased exponentially in magnitude as the direction of deflection diverged from the preferred direction.
pmid
15772358
title
Stimulus-dependent changes in spike threshold enhance feature selectivity in rat barrel cortex neurons.
contact Name
Contreras, D
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Stepanyants A - The fractions of short- and long-range connections in the visual cortex ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - Change in the inhibition-excitation balance in cortical tissue sections of different thicknesses. Change is calculated as the ratio between the fractions of intact i&rarr e and e&rarr e synapse
id
44
species
cat
age
adult
brain region
area 17
layer
cell
PC
aspect
cortico-cortical projections
key result(s)
extrinsic connections to cortex >70% of excitation comes from outside a 500 µm radius column around a cell
pmid
19221032
title
The fractions of short- and long-range connections in the visual cortex
contact Name
Stepanyants A
contributed by
MR
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Steven J. Schiff - The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation - effect of synaptic blockers on network dynamics
id
45
species
rat
age
na
brain region
occipital neocortex
layer
iii-v
cell
aspect
inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics
key result(s)
GABAergic inhibition increases the complexity of patterns of activity and contributes to the regulation of the cortex
pmid
22805065
title
The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex.
contact Name
Steven J. Schiff
contributed by
Dimitri Christodoulou
checked by
SR

possibly consistent - Luhmann, HJ - Three patterns of oscillatory activity differentially synchronize developing neocortical networks in vivo. ext_link

input/validation/consistent
possibly consistent
evaluation criterion
pending evaluation
id
46
species
rat
age
p0-p7
brain region
S1
layer
cell
Int & PC
aspect
network oscillations
key result(s)
Spindle bursts and gamma oscillations may represent an early functional columnar-like pattern, long oscillations may serve as a propagating activation signal consolidating these immature neuronal networks
pmid
19605639
title
Three patterns of oscillatory activity differentially synchronize developing neocortical networks in vivo.
contact Name
Luhmann, HJ
contributed by
SR
checked by
SR